THE FIRST INDICATIONS OF THE HUMAN PRESENCE TO OUR VALLEY
The discovery of remains of a burial corresponding to the Neolithic period in the cave of the Peñeta Roja assures us the existence of a prehistoric human settlement to our lands. With them an incipient agriculture and cattle ranch would begin. These men make their stone utensils: axes, spears, mills for transforming acorns from oak and cereals into flour … It is possible to date this new human behavior in the coastal territory of the Mediterranean towards the years 3,000 BC. With them they would begin to take advantage of the flat terrain of the ravines of the ravine, where they would build some cabins, near the crops and the water.
The Valley of Olocau County, Marines and Gàtova
The burial of the Peñeta Roja is dated to around 2,000 BC. Later, around 1500 BC, relations with some towns in the south of the Peninsula began to use metals, among which a very important was bronze. They built the towns in high places and the first signs of fortification appeared, which you can see above the Red Penny, the Portitxol, the Pere, the Musgany and the White Puntal.
If the man began as a hunter and gatherer of the fruits he found, with agriculture he will begin to store food for the times that there are no crops and he will also learn to transform them, preparing the flour for making some type of food, like bread.
From the 8th century BC, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek and Etruscan merchants came to our shores, who were to transform the life forms of those inhabitants with new discoveries, new tools to do the work and an organization that would give way to nuclei Inhabited.
At the beginning of the sixth century BC, the creation of a large inhabited nucleus was considered as a kind of capital of a territory, in the hill of San Miguel de Llíria, renamed Edeta. Then, the inhabitants who lived in their surroundings were learning all those new forms of life and began a new culture, renowned Iberian, one of the first cultures of the Aboriginal peoples of the Peninsula. The name Iberians was given to the inhabitants of the Mediterranean coast by a renowned Roman writer Rufus Festus Avienus. The Iberians, of whom we know more and more, formed several towns. We, that is, the present lands of Olocau, were part of the edetà town. The capital of that town was Llíria, that was then called Edeta. To protect this city, the edetans built a series of defenses or watchtowers such as, in our case, the Puntal de los Lobos.
THE FIRST WRITTEN WORDS OF THE VALLEY
The first alphabet known is the Phoenician, from a country bordering the Mediterranean, situated where Lebanon is now, from there it spread by the places where these people traded. The fact is that the Iberians also use their own writing system and have left us inscriptions on stone, metal and painted in ceramics. At the Wielder’s End, a deer’s horn was worked in the shape of a breastplate – like a collar – with two holes at the ends and empty inside. Above, the word NAIBA is engraved. But the enigma of the Iberian world is that we do not know how to decipher its alphabet; Until everything has been able to recognize the signs, but we still can not understand them. Also found a glass of black enamel that carries a graphite with a word written in Greek – EROTOS – which means – love -. Do not you find it nice that the first written word that we discovered in Olocau is the word love! Now, you can invent a thousand stories to explain this fact.
AN IBERIAN SANCTUARY? : THE HORSE CAVE
The men of those times gradually discovered a series of things about which they had no power: the wind, the sun, the moon, the rain, among others; And to make them happy, he adores them, makes offerings, sacrifices. Religions begin to appear. With the Iberians we discover that many caves and mountain tops become places of worship. Also to their villages there is a place dedicated to the gods. All these beliefs are forming religions. In the sanctuaries they will take their offerings and deposit objects that represent what they ask for. There they will leave glasses, small statues, hocks.
Among the early cults of these settlers, a goddess soon appears, who teaches them the secrets of agriculture, her Virgin, the goddess Tanit or Demeter. At the bottom of the Wolves are two ceramic pebeters representing this goddess.
Entrance to the Cave of the Horse
It is also believed that they worshiped other symbols, such as the horse, imagining that in one of them rode the sun in their daily journey. It seems that so strong was this belief in the horse that many centuries after the Iberians, the inhabitants of our valley, the Moors, continued to make their pilgrimage to the cave that opens with a deep hole above the Peña d’Ali-Maimó, Our Rock. 1455, a bull of the Valencian pope Calixte III, is going to send the judges of the city of Valencia to destroy the horse and cover the cave.
The Carthaginians, who were like the heirs of the Phoenicians, fought against the Romans, who was a native people of the Italian peninsula. Then, the Iberian peoples saw, perhaps for the first time, in what was called a world conflict. The result of this war was that the Iberian Peninsula was occupied by the Romans. Possibly the first trace of his passage between us was that of the destruction of the Iberian watchtower of the Puntal de los Lobos.
In the middle of the century Y of ours was, a decree dictated in Rome marks like municipality of Roman right to Edeta. That means that the Iberians and their leaders are now Roman citizens. We know that those Ibero-Romans will begin a great transformation of the Valencian lands. The old city of Edeta of the Iberians, with the Romans settled to the plan, in the way of Llíria to Olocau, where they constructed a commemorative bow that is now known as Pla del Arc.
We can still discover the trail of the country houses or villas that were built around Edeta, dedicated to the jobs of the field and where they had the cattle, the trujales to make the wine and the oil mills edetans. Remains of those towns we have in the term of Olocau to the place of Pitxiri, the Tollo and behind the Sella. Many farms in the Campo de Turia are located on a Roman villa, such as the Maimona, the Algarrobo and the Portaceli Tower. The Romans did many public works, such as roads, bridges and aqueducts to drive water to cities and inhabited places. In Olocau, they left us the trail of an aqueduct that collected the water in the Strait of Alcalà and led it by an irrigation ditch to the town. This aqueduct has two arches to pass the ravines, one of the Thieves and another the one of the Source of the Friar; The latter has been restored and is known as the Arquet.
The inhabitants of Edeta and the surrounding area planted many vines; The wine of the plans of Maimona and Pitxiri became very famous among the Romans. They also began to plant olive trees, and to keep the wine and oil harvests and to transport them they needed pitchers, so there was a great industrial activity dedicated to its manufacture, a sample of which appear to be the furnaces found at the departure of the Piedra Gorda.
A ROMAN LINEAGE OF THE VALLEY
The Romans spoke a language called Latin. From Latin, most of the languages of the European Mediterranean (Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Occitan, Romansh, Rumà …). They have left many witnesses written in the form of tombstones. One of them is kept in Olocau and carries the following inscription: “EMILIO GERMNO PATRIO A EMILIAE AESTIVAE MATRI AEMILIUS …” which translated comes to say: “TO EMILI BROTHER, YOUR FATHER TO EMILIA ESTIVA YOUR MOTHER EMILI …” It is of desserts of the century Y or principles of the II of ours era. The AEMILII family was a lineage of the Gallery tribe, frequent in Sagunt, Tarragona and Llíria.
Then, we can think that this would be an Edetana family that owns one of the villas that we have named before, located around our town.
THE FIRST KNOWN NAME OF OUR PEOPLE
The trail of Roman time constructions in our town, such as the Arquet or the tower of the Lordship and the ruins of its surroundings, seems to be the cause of the first name known as Pardines that were registered to the documents the Catalan conquerors. In the territories colonized by the Romans, in the places where they appear ruins and rest of old buildings they gave the name of “parietina”; Later, languages derived from Latin, such as Catalan and l’occità, gave rise to the toponym of “pardines”, which meant that there were ancient ruins. And this is how Olocau was named in the Book of Reparation of Jaime I when he says: “to Roderic Enyegez (En Gomeç), gentleman, the alqueria de Pardines, with ovens and mills” (18 September 1238) )
There is also another document where King James I speaks of the place of Pardines. It is the donation made as a term of the council of Teruel the territory formed by: “castle and the town of Jérica, and that its term has landmarks from the river of Alventosa to the Watchtower of Bejis, and that in this term are the slopes Of Montalgrau, Almansa and Alcota to the neck of Vilamur and to the port of Sogorb and to Buqueres de Llíria, and that in this donation are Pardines, Buqueres, Marines and Guadalmat, with the terms and that are governed by Teruel’s jurisdiction, Exception of the donations made to gentlemen “. (ACA, Irrigation, 64, fol 150). But this donation was not fulfilled, since the king Jaime founded the kingdom of València with own personality, independent of Aragon and Cataluña.
But this name would not be the definitive one, since in the year 1568, in a book of rents or Memory of the inhabitants and vassals of the barony of the Valley of Olocau, we can read: “Pardines vulgarly said the place of Olocau.” We see how the name of the castle and the Valley is also the name of the farmhouse where is the manor house of the Vilaragut.
THE CONQUEST OF ISLAM
With the name of Islam we know the followers of Muhammad, who founded a religion and, by spreading his beliefs, made a series of conquests for Asia and North Africa. The year 711 arrived in the Iberian Peninsula and conquered in great part.
At first they agreed with the descendants of the iberorromanos and lords visigodos that occupied their lands. The territories of the Valencian coast were known as Sarq-Al-Andalus.
It seems that little by little the peasants’ villages of the Valencian lands that depended on a Visigoth or Roman lord accepted the religion of the new conquerors, since that way they became free men, and thus the Islamization of the settlers was advanced. Then, at different times, other villages in the north of Africa, such as the Berebers and the Egyptians, made the irrigated agriculture much more prosperous.
A NEW NAME TO THE VALLEY
The first written word that comes to us about our valley is that given by an Arab writer, Ibn-Alqama, to the eleventh century, when he quotes a castle with the name “Hisn al-Uqab”, words that mean: “castle of the Large mountain, the coastal or the eagle. ” This castle is none other than Castellet del Rey or Real, its term comprised approximately the present municipal terms of Gátova, Marines and Olocau. Territory that the Christian conquerors named like Valley of Olocau. As you see the word “al – Uqab” which means “eagle”, with the phonetics of the Catalan conquerors will change the – b – by the u – and would be fixed with the Olocau form, and so appears in the Book of Distribution of King Jaime I as the name of a valley and its castle.
With the first documents written by the Arabs, we began to know many more things about how those inhabitants who were already known as alochoaybi lived, who would be the precedent of the present gentilicio “olocauí”. In a document about the inhabitants of the village of Sierra, in 1342, appears a character Çaat Alochoaybi, that is, “olocauí”, the first time we found the gentilicio of the people of the Valley of Olocau.
With the Arabization colonization much advanced in the cultivation of vegetables, cereals, carob trees, olive trees and fig trees. Many of the present orchards of the valley and others existing around the fountains are all creation of this town, are the Moorish orchards. The form of poblamiento was the groupings of ten or twelve houses, known like “farmhouses”. In the moments of danger, all the people of them were guarded to the castle al-Uqab. The farms of the Valley were: At the end of Gátova, Marmalé or Vallmalet, Towers and the Bolillola or Buyuela; Marines with the Pot, the Real and the Algarrobo; And Pardines (later Olocau) with Pitxiri and Roa and Faraig (place of the Casita of the ReRetor to Pedralbilla).
The Arabs also brought us innovations and techniques that they had learned from the East, among them the flour mills, which operated with the force of the water that they let out of a raft and that moved the grindstone that would turn into the flour of the great ones of wheat. Remains of these mills can still be seen in the Bajo era, in Olocau.
THE VALENCIAN PEOPLE FOUNDATION
The conquest and creation of the Kingdom of Valencia is part of the trend towards the expansion of the Christian peoples of Europe. King James I was the creator and organizer of the Valencian lands as a state within the Crown, which was formed by Aragon, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands, and culturally integrated within the linguistic area of the Catalan language. With the foundation of the Kingdom, the Valencians have a birth certificate and we begin to be a free people. The conquest of our lands was partly war and partly pact, in some violent moments and others of negotiated surrenders, as it seems that it was the one of our Valley, since it will continue being populated by Arabs, known like Moriscos, from His baptism bound in 1534 also renamed “New Christians”.
In the valley of the castle of Olocau, the farms remained Muslim, although now they were going to be under the dominion of the knights of the conquest, Aragoneses and Catalans that formed the army of Jaime I. This king had to prepare some books where they were annotating All the donations he made to the conquered lands. In these books, named “books of the Repartimento”, it appears the first donation of the castle and farms of the term of Olocau to Hug de Fenollet in 1237, long before to have conquered them. This personage was bishop of Valencia and belonged to the lineage of the Fenollet, coming from the North Catalonia, at the moment French territory.
Then, in 1238, the donation of the farm of Pardines is made to the gentleman Roderic Enyegez. Many of these donations are again sold or exchanged by the knights themselves or the king. Until in 1287, the king Alfonso the Benigno gives to its secretary Ramon Escorna authorization to reconstruct the castle of Olocau and to acquire the farms of its term. With this acquisition, the Escorna became lords of the Valley of Olocau, formed by the places of Pardines, Marines, Gátova, l’Olla, Torres, the Algarrobo and the Arabs in their vassals. Thus we enter the medieval European world, better known as feudalism, the time of castles and knights.
THE LORD OF THE CASTLE AND ITS TERM
The acquisition by a gentleman of a castle and his term with the farms was the way to become noble and to join to his property the high jurisdiction, if the monarch, by his commitments with his servants, was prepared to give it to him.
The Escorna lost the favor of the king, and had to sell the property of the term and the castle, which was bought by Mateu Mercero, the admiral of King Pedro the Cachetero, on October 29, 1359. They tell the chronicles that this fief decorate The Great Hall of the castle with its coat of arms “of four bands blue on golden field and a lion rampante of the own color”, representation that you can still see in the current shield of the municipality of Marines.
Admiral Mercero was taken prisoner and killed by the Castilians in the War of the Pears and his widow sold in 1368 the Valley and the castle of Olocau to the knight Antonio de Vilaragut and Visconti, who will marry the daughter of the admiral, Juana Mercero and Santllir. With him will begin the lineage of the Vilaragut, barons and later counts of the Valley of Olocau.
THE FIRST AND ONLY KNOWN PRIVILEGE OF THE OLOCAU VALLEY
They say that Antonio de Vilaragut was a very learned man and was king butler royal, that granted to him the 25 of September of 1388 a privilege or fuero, that is like a sort of letter that was given to the personages and towns by the Services they had rendered to the crown. With this privilege, the king grants to the inhabitants of the Valley of Olocau franchise of commerce and the pound of a series of taxes of toll, portazgo, mensuratge, customs, anchorage, passage … and this benefit extends to all the cities , Villas, castles and real places, maritime and non-maritime, of the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon, excluding the villas and places located to the north of the neck of Pertús, zone of up of the Pyrenees known today like the French Catalonia. This privilege is preserved in the archives of the Crown of Aragon, which is in the city of Barcelona, and is a sample of the power and relations of the Vilaragut family with the kings of the Crown of Aragon. Some historians even talk of the visits of King John the Hunter to the Valley for hunting their forests.
THE LINEAGE OF THE VILARAGUT
On August 23, 1398, Antonio de Vilaragut y Visconti created with his testament the bond of the castle, valley and honor of Olocau. That meant that his heirs should keep the ownership of these lands “provided that he had, have, take, and take, and, if he takes last name, and nickname Vilaragut, e, do, And, arms, ours, e, succehidors … “All this meant that he established a line of succession with the heir and that he should preserve the name and his shield. Thus, the Vilaraguts will fill the history of the Valley and its villages, first as barons and then as counts.
Family originating from Catalonia, from there they came to participate in the conquest of Valencia, forming part of the troops of Jaime I. They were named descendants of the house of the kings of Hungary, for that reason they used the same shield that those. And they have the documents of these lineage that from there went to serve the Franks and with these they arrived to the north of Catalonia, where they had a castle near d’Empúries, castle that with the time was denominated of Vilaragut, at the moment Castle of Empordà. Present in the conquest of the Valencian lands were Arnau and Pere de Vilaragut, possibly brothers, who were to the dam of Sueca and Xàtiva and obtained several estates.
A in Bernat de Vilaragut, king Jaime II in 1296 gave him in fief the castle and the town of Albaida. The Vilaragut served in the war of Sardinia and Sicily, and so we come to what interests us. Antoni de Vilaragut and Visconti, grandson of the dukes of Milan on the part of mother, was born in Sicily in 1336. at age 13 came in Valencia as page of the infanta Leonor, promise of Pere the Ceremonious, who married in Valencia in 1349 A few years later, in 1354, in Barcelona we found him embarked towards the war of Sardenya Two years later participates in the war of Castile. On June 30, 1368, he bought the places of the castle and Valle de Olocau: Pardines, Gátova, Marines, Olla, Pitxiri and Torres. King Pedro IV appointed him mayor of the two castles of Xàtiva in 1375, paying 7500 annual salaries, a post he would hold for 25 years, until his death in 1400.
With this lineage, the Valley and the castle of Olocau, become a feudal property and its inhabitants in the vassals of those gentlemen. That more or less lasts until 1812, when the Cortes of the Spanish Monarchy reunited in Cadiz decided to abolish territorial dominions.
Tower of Pardines, to the house of the Lordship.
Feudalism is named a long period in the history of the peoples of Europe in which the kings, to the satisfaction of the knights who helped them in their wars, gave them the property of some territories, with the obligation to help them whenever they needed them . For their part, the lords were in charge of charging a series of taxes to their vassals and count on them as soldiers when the kings called them.
It will be in this medieval period around 1460 when furnaces are installed to make glass and that will give some renowned to our town, the direction of the furnace always seems to be in the hands of old Christians. They were located around the orchard of the Castle or the Lordship, in the place where the Old Bridge is now, on the side of the cacera raft of the orchard of Bajo at the entrance to our villa. The friars of the convent of Portaceli were some of the most habitual customers to visit it and to buy the objects that made there. In 1568, the book of income of the Barony says: “Memory of the inhabitants and vassals of the place of Marines, Pardines vulgarly said the place of Olocau, and Gátova.” The document this tells us that the heads of house of Olocau are: Bernat Cadet, alias Afen; Gaspar Bonayac Zorza; Andreu Sultan; Joan Amet Celemique Calvo; Francesc Calvo; Gaspar Peco Coayat; Merlchior Blachs, allias Peco; Gracia Mugip; Melchior Nadir (major); Alonso Carahueni, the Red; Gaspar Casrim; Joan Carahueni (senior); Francisco Sastre; Gaspar Pardo; Vicent Calemira; Jaon Çot; Gracia Xeco; Baybarot Coayat; Alonso Gufey Baybarot, alias Peco; Joan Serafi Carahueni; Melchior Carahueni; Gaspar Oradaich Barsella; Joan Ubeyt; Lluís Ubeyt (mayor); Lluís Ayet Ubeyt (minor) Beni or Ubeyt the greatest; Batiste Ofayl àlias Pixquiri; The widow of the Tagarino; Yace lies; Melchior Nadir (child).
Signatura de Joan de Unyon, Alcaid d’Olocau.
As you can see, all the surnames are different from the present ones of the people of Olocau, they are Arab surnames like the language that speak between them, but look that they have names of Christians; This means that they have been forcibly baptized and forced to be Christians, although many of them remain secretly Muslims. That is why they will be known as Moriscos or new Christians, to differentiate them from the old Christians, who are the descendants of the Christian, Aragonese and Catalan conquerors who have been populating the Valencian lands. Thus, we have that our region only exists two towns of old Christians, Llíria and La Pobla de Vallbona; The rest, Olocau, Marines, Gátova, Benissanó, Benaguasil, Vilamarxant, Riba-roja, Bétera, Nàquera and Serra, are new Moriscos or Christians.
The memory of these inhabitants will be present in many names of the departures of our term, starting with the name of our town, Olocau, and others like, l’Amara, l’Aigualeig, l’Edua, l’Almadec and the Caña del Sultan, which recalls a Moorish lineage renowned Sultan. Also the departure of Cuevas d’Alonso will remind us that Alonso Carahuení, the most famous olocauí bandolero from the sierra to the 16th century, hid there.
THE EXPULSION OF A PEOPLE
In September 1609, all the Moors were expelled from the Valencian territory and shipped to the North of Africa. Many of them were killed along the way, and those who arrived were very bad receipts to African lands. They say that some of them left the door of the house open to be able to take the key and still some families of Tunisia and Algiers keep these keys as a treasure. Of the Moorish of Olocau they know that some of them arrived at l’Alger. The family of the mayor or keeper of the castle, Joan d ‘Unyon, his wife Magdalena and their children Francesc Joan, Joan Batiste, Antoni Vicent, Pere, Paula, Dorotea and Magdalena ; The chaplain d’Olocau, Joan Carpenter; L’escuder Gaspar Rodríguez and the glassmaker Pere Ybanyez.
NEW PEOPLE TO THE VALLEY
In 1611, the Baron of the Valley of Olocau, Alonso de Vilaragut and Sanç, is able to gather a group of new settlers who came mainly from the town of Camarena (Teruel) and granted a Carta Pobla. In this document the obligations of the new vassals and those of the lord are declared. Then we can say that the lineages or families from which the present inhabitants of the Valley descended began. In that year 39 heads of house arrived and in a first distribution 26 occupy the houses of Olocau, 2 the ones of Marines and 11 the ones of Gátova. The first Justice of the town of Olocau in 1611, was Mateu Navarret natural of Camarena. Those years were a great drought, and we know that many of them abandoned the towns and lands that had granted them, and did so secretly, since the contract they had signed was not allowed to do before the age of five. Those inhabitants will mainly speak Aragonese and this will be the talk of Gátova and Marines, but to Olocau a plague and droughts of those years, will leave many few neighbors and was again repopulated by families from surrounding towns, such as Llíria and La Pobla de Vallbona, and that’s why we speak Valencian.
In 1660, the heads of house in Olocau are: Gaspar Blai; Joan Batiste Perez; Vda. Franco Corella; Jaume Agustino (higher); Jaume Agustino (less); Lucas Arambillaga; Jacinto Arambillaga; Gregori Romero; Sebastián Arambillaga; Miquel Tortajada (less); Jeronim Cuenca; Valero Franco; Bertomeu Ferrandis; Josep Ferrandis; Josep Sanxis (higher); Maties Oltra; Martí Dulce; Caterina and Batiste Bosch (less); Maria Linares; Francesc Romero; Gabriel Vidagany; Domingo Badenes; Anton Pascual; Jaume Penyarroja; Agustino Cubells; Josep Sanxis (less); Damià Sanauja and Cosme Sanauja.
The Arambillaga, now Alambiaga, is a Biscayan lineage, originally from Zumarraga, who, like other lands, came to the Turia Field to cut the pinnacles of Concordia, at the end of Llíria, to make the Arciprestal church and then many of them Decided to stay in our region.
THE XVII CENTURY
With the new settlers, in Olocau and the whole Valley they will change the forms of dress, customs and speech. Before we had said that the territories that in the Christian conquest were populated by Aragonese will speak the Aragonese and those who populated Catalans will be the ones who will speak Valencian. In the Valley the predominant language of the new settlers of the XVII century coming from Camarena will be the Aragonese. Later we will see how Olocau ends up predominating the Valencian by reasons of a later poblamiento towards 1660.
These new settlers found the written documents names of the term, sources and roads, such as l’Aigualeig, l’Alcala, l’Edua, l’Almadec, Ali Maimó, Maimona, … with The Arabic origin, but as they expanded the cultivated lands they were introducing the names of their language and their lineages, such as: Sanxis Plan, Blai Cave, Hondo del Moreno, Cotanda Corner, Pere Puntal, Pelarda Strut ; Other times the names remember the shape of the terrain or some special feature such as: Lateral of the Wolves, White Strut, Plan de l’Arenal, Loma de las Clotxes, Llómetes Pelonas, Portitxol, Gramisal, Amitges, Terreta Blanca, Peña Negra, Peña Blanca, Penyeta del Reloj, Musgany, names or toponyms that responded to his Valencian speaking and therefore place names that we can also find in the linguistic area of Catalan.
These villagers were not satisfied to cultivate mainly the orchards, as the Moriscos used to, and to graze their cattle, but they are expanding the crops of the dry land with new plantations of carob trees, olive trees, vines and fig trees. They also completed these works with the coal they made in the forests and the esparto that they harvested by the mountains of the term and with which they made the espadrilles, ropes, serones and other objects that they took to sell in the markets of Llíria or Segorbe and to the city From Valencia. But the industrial activity of glass disappeared, an activity that perhaps would have helped us to industrialize and we would not have become a migrant people years later.
This century was very difficult for the settlers, since they had to rebuild the houses and open new fields of cultivation and they were with a dry one and a plague. When 1628, Alonso Sanç de Vilaragut and Pardo de la Casta, is renamed the first Count of the Valley of Olocau, improves somewhat the benefits and helps the vassals. His son, Jordi Sanç de Vilaragut, will be renamed in 1650, Marquis de Lanero and then restore the house of the Lordship of Olocau and also make a series of improvements in ditches and azudes to increase the land.
THE XVIII CENTURY
In beginning this century, the Valencians were involved in the War of Secession, delivered by the Austries and the Borbons, aspiring to the Spanish monarchy. The farmers, who paid many taxes to the lords, before the offers of the Austries followed this side; On the other hand, many of the lords were supporters of the Borbons because they said they would continue to maintain their power over the vassals. Thus the Count of Olocau will be a partisan of the Borbons; On the contrary, the farmers of Olocau will be partisans of the Austries and will form the groups of maulets or migueletes, that will resist in the mountains of our mountains Calderona until they will be vanquished.
With the defeat of the battle of Almansa, 25 April 1707, the Kingdom of Valencia was occupied “by right of conquest” by the Castilian and French troops of Felip V de Borbón. The Valencians lost their own charters or laws and the power of lordship is going to be as powerful as it had been before. All started to pay some taxes more to maintain the army that occupied the Valencian lands.
With the new organization of Castilian laws, the figure of Justice disappears from the municipalities of Valencia, which will be renamed from now onwards the mayor. In 1722, the representatives of the municipality of Olocau wrote chapters of the town of Olocau, which will be presented to Count Pascual Y de Fenollet Sanç de Vilaragut for approval. This is the first document we have of the rules drafted for our municipality. Through this document we see how agriculture was imposed on livestock, and how it protects the planting of vines, carob and olive trees. As they create rules for the proper functioning of the oven, butcher, tavern and washer
North facade of the House of Lordship.
THE FIRST CENSUS OF THE SPANISH MONARCHY
In 1787, the first population census was conducted in Spain. For him we have in detail and at individual level the age, sex, marital status and profession of the inhabitants of our town. As you can see, the population had not grown, since at the end of the seventeenth century there was a strong plague in Olocau and no more than six neighbors.
CENSUS OF OLOCAU
Single Married Widowed Total
H D H D H D TOTAL
Up to 7 years 20 27 – – – – 47
7 to 16 26 14 – – – – 40
16 to 25 21 – – 7 – – 33
25 to 40 1 – 16 18 – – 35
40 to 50 2 – 13 6 1 1 23
More than 50 – – 9 6 2 2 19
Total 75 41 38 37 3 3 Total
Labradors 54; Day laborers 6; Created 7; Capellà 1.
At the end of this century, the Valencian Country recovered from the last war. Trade increases in the port of Valencia as well as other ports in the Mediterranean and King Carlos III authorizes to trade with the colonies of America, which will help prosperity.
In Europe there are men who have a concern for work, culture, science and economics: they are the enlightened. They created institutions to discuss and disseminate their ideas and to improve people’s lives. In Valencia, the Economic Society of Friends of the Country is created, where hemp, flax, alfalfa, sugarcane and mulberries will be cultivated, and the industries of silk, wire fences and dyes will be promoted. Count Dídac de Fenollet and then his son Pascual II de Fenollet will be part of this society and will report the breeding of silkworms and the planting of mulberries to the Valley.
An important person, follower of this movement, is the Valencian Antoni Josep de Cavanilles, who left us a fabulous book, Observations on the natural history … of the Kingdom of Valencia, where he describes its inhabitants and how they live, and what they produce At that time to the Valencian Country. This character visits Olocau on August 25, 1792, indicating to us, among other things: “As he observed in passing the progress made by agriculture in the term of Olocau, already inside the mountains and ravines, already in the plains Contiguous to the Liria field, which is usually limestone. ” Then he tells us what the productions of these 60 neighbors are: “9,000 pitchers of wine, 400 arrobes of figs, 12,000 arrobes of carob and some wine.”
Also those years take possession of the County of Olocau the count Dídac de Fenollet and his wife Simforosa Encrespé of Valldaura, who will build from 1796 the house of the Honor and leave a series of warehouses, trujales, oil mills and new furnaces to the Valley , Facilitating the “breaking up” of lands and promoting the cultivation of mulberry trees and the breeding of silkworms; Will also boost the marketing of wine and the installation of new presses and other working tools, such as the introduction of the xeruga aladre. All in order to improve the living conditions of their vassals and increase production, and also to improve their incomes.
Big house . Work of Count Dídac de Fenollet. L’a Olla (Marines)
At the beginning of this century, most of the plans of the term of Olocau are cultivated. Vineyards fill most of the land. The town grows and widens: new streets appear, such as the Pla del Castillo, San Francisco, the Eres and the Placita; The large houses are made, many of them with the cellar, the almàssera and wide pens. The wine begins to be exported, the distillation of aguardiente appears and the trajinantes are in charge of the transport of the wine to the port of Valencia. The wineries and trujales of the Lordship export their wine in the French city of Seventh, near Marseille, where some nuns transform it into a special wine to say mass. In the last twenty years of this century the vineyard represented a golden age for the economy of the farmers of Olocau.
In 1857, Olocau has 927 inhabitants; In 1877 it reaches 1,082; And in 1897 are 1,234. The increase of the population of Olocau in this century is the highest of all the towns of the Field of Turia, according to the work of Castelló-Traver, Demography of the Valencian Country.
In 1857, a group of owners olocauins pay the construction of a bridge to the Carraixet, that facilitates the entrance to the town by the way of Llíria; In 1867, the water of the Fountain of the Peña is carried in the Plaza Mayor; In 1862, the Count gave a plot to build the schools, which were inaugurated in 1869 and will be one of the first schools of new plant built in the Valencian Country that have attached the housing for teachers. In the House of the Lordship, the count, makes the first installation of carbide to illuminate it and also makes install lanterns to the streets of the town.
THE END OF FEUDALISM
In 1812, the deputies of the Cortes of Spain, meeting in Cadiz, wrote the First Spanish Constitution, which sought to reduce the power of the nobles and the church to the towns where they had their lordships and that the farmers obtained the titles Possession and ownership of the lands they worked. This law mobilized in many towns and began a long historical period of conflicts between vassals and nobles and other powers, such as the church, to get rid of the taxes of these institutions. It was a long struggle, and until 1865, Olocau , Would not be free of these impositions. On that date the neighbors reached an agreement with the Count Pascual III of Fenollet and Encrespé of Valldaura by which they paid him 70,000 reales of fleece and the redemption of the Manor was made. The count retained the dominion of the “white mountain”, the lands of direct dominion of the games of the Olivar of the Count and the Gramisal, and the house of the Lordship.
In 1891, the countess Maria del Carmen Curled up Valldaura de Zaforteza, donated the “white mountain” in the municipality of Olocau, for the benefit of its neighbors, thus ended feudalism among us.
THE CENSUS OF 1857
This census tells us many things about the life of the people of those years, especially the one referring to the poor of solemnity, are those who have no one who helped them and live from it that they give them. Notice that at that time there is no insurance or assistance to the elderly, so we had twenty-six poor.
Also in this census one speaks of the House Refugio, was a four-sided house, with a door and a fire house, located to the other part of the barranquet of the Friar at the entrance to the Calvary. It sheltered the poor who went from town to town and those who had a traveling business, as is the case of the cestero, who is accompanied by his family. In some places in the ravine and inside the orchards, some people had planted a wicker, with the stems from which the baskets were made. Then, when this one came, the people would take the wicker and he would make baskets and baskets. When the orders were finished, the cadet and his family went to another town. Other inhabitants of the house are those who went from town to town to collect, that is, to beg.
CENSUS OF 1857
Owners-labradores Day laborers Criads Poor servants of solemnitat House Refuge
53 150 6 3 26 11
Other trades: 1 doctor, 2 teachers, 1 chaplain, 1 “albeytar” or veterinarian, 1 “sartenero” or locksmith, 1 barber, 1 blacksmith, 3 shepherds and 4 stonecutters.
In the House-Refuge, at that moment there are 11 people: the basketboy, his wife and a seven-year-old daughter; A widow and a small daughter; A marriage, with a minor; A widow, a widow, and a young man of twenty, all of them lost, that is, living out of public charity.
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: THE EXODUS
In the first decade of the century that began the town continued increasing population, without extinguishing the irrigation. There was talk of new roads, electricity, and the first bikes were bought. However, there was also a large mass of day laborers, with no land dependent on a newspaper. At times he lacked work and some of them formed groups to go to mow in Aragon or to go down to the orchard. Other olocauins will work on the works of the railroad from Valencia to Barcelona and discovered the palm forests of the Garraf palm heart (Catalonia), and make groups to harvest them from March to June and then sell them to the Tarragona and Barcelona stores. Also in those years the gardens of the Llobregat delta began to open in the areas of Viladecans and Gavà, and some of these day laborers also found wages in that territory.
By the year 1912, the phylloxera entered the vineyards of Olocau and many more farmers were left without journeys. The rainfed did not stop for more and the attempts to increase the irrigation did not stand out, so the olocauins found the solution with the exodus towards Catalonia. There, in Gavà (Bajo Llobregat), the Roca family opened its factory of sanitary material and radiators, and it was home to many of these olocauins. Our villa will arrive in 1910 to the 1,411 inhabitants, the maximum reached in its history; But in 1920 they are 1,195 inhabitants and in 1930 they are 914. Little by little, the olocauins go to Gavà, a land where they will not feel strangers since the same language them sister and a similar landscape of rovens surrounds that one villa. In 1936 the original workers of Olocau that work to the Company Roca Radiadores S.A. Were 10% of 256, not counting the children already born in Gavà.
Meanwhile, in Olocau came some innovations of the century. The electricity was installed in 1912. Also Olocau in 1914 was united by new roads with Bétera and Llíria. In 1916, the first public transport, the Tartana of Garrafa, was established that went to Bétera and later to Llíria. In 1918, a truck is transformed to make passenger transport to Valencia. In 1927, the road arrives at Gátova and the whole Valley is united by a modern way. These works and the arrival of electricity made our towns move from medieval ways to modern life, although many traces of that rural life subsisted for many more years.
The demography of Olocau from 1915 begins to be regressive, losing population continuously; A phenomenon that would only stop during the period from the Civil War to the fifties.
The Civil War (1936-1939) was promoted by those who did not believe that democracy was the best method to solve the coexistence of peoples. Life is becoming difficult for our people and many olocauins died in the front: twenty-one as soldiers of the Republic and one in the troops revolted; And another one was shot in Asturias when the forces of Franco imprisoned him. All this brought pain and sadness to many homes.
This post-war period stopped the migratory movement of the people of Olocau. But life was difficult, if a laborer collected the 1937, 7 pesetas daily, after the war, in 1939 and 40 will charge 6 pessetes. Because the Olocauins continue to march, it will be necessary to wait for 1950, when many young people migrate towards Europe (France, England, Switzerland …) and also complete families will march towards the industries of Gavà.
In 1959, the Diputación de Valencia adopted the town of Olocau and built a new town hall and schools, restored the washer and other works that will be inaugurated in June 1961.
The population follows the descending process and in 1970 we became 559 people, the lowest level. Since 1970, the model of settlement of the people of the city, with the exits of the weekends and the construction of urbanizations, comes to the end of Olocau. Thus the 1980, begins a new growth with 573 inhabitants. In 1999, they reach 933 inhabitants.
To the Plan of the Tower is created the urbanization Pedralbilla, of 153’9 hectares and 900 parcels; Other urbanizations follow, such as l’Arquet and Pinadeta, around the town, others extend by the term, the Plan of Framework, the Hill of the Clotxes, the Struts and the Forks.
In April 1979, the first democratic municipal elections took place after the Civil War, being elected Mayor Vicent Zurriaga and Mañez.
Time is changing, in rural villages as our increasingly studying more people and the agricultural model with the introduction of the tractor sets a new way of working; It does not take so many people to work the land anymore. The agrarian model changes, and in an increasingly near future the olocauins will no longer be dedicated mainly to agriculture.
In 1975 the construction of the channel of Benagéber or of the Turia finishes, that finishes trifinio of Llíria, Olocau and Marines. In 1978 this canal is extended by the term of Olocau until arriving at Bétera. Irrigation grows by the planes of the term, the vineyards transformed into oranges disappear, many olocauins work the fields part-time and have other trades, which are not agrarian.
IRRIGATION LANDS IN HECTARIAS, AT THE END OF OLOCAU
1960 1970 1980 1994
28 ha 52 ha 187 ha 369 ha
New town hall.
THE 21ST CENTURY
Little by little, many of the new residents come to Olocau and the dispersed population of the term grows. In 2001 the population is 919 inhabitants, 2002 is 964, in 2003 we reached 1,037 inhabitants, 2004 are 1,127 and in 2005 the neighbors are 1,195, of which 121 foreigners, 112 originating in Europe, including 81 from the United Kingdom And, 9 of the continent of America.
At present there are people living in the urbanizations of Pedralbilla, La Loma, Puntales, Plan de Marco or La Sede, as well as the houses that we can find for Campillo, Forks and Llometes Pelonas, where there are usually Residents throughout the year. This is a new form of settlement. Before all people lived in the village and now it is not so; This is a new phenomenon and we will have to foresee some actions so that these people are integrated into the collective life of our people and end up being as olocauins as those who live in the old town.
Most of these people work in the city of Valencia and its surroundings, others live during the working days in the city and from Friday to Monday they live in Olocau. In summer and vacations the population increases and the forms of life, the habits of purchase and of leisure no longer are concentrated in the towns, but in all the regional area; Little by little, rural life forms have become urban forms of life. So much so that some experts in urbanism, we are told that the Campo de Turia is a part of the metropolitan area of Valencia, is to say as a kind of neighborhood in the city of Valencia.
Author: Ferran Zurriaga i Agust